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No. 379

APRIL 2015

Vol. XCV

ISSN0019-5170

Contents


 
 

Economic Impact of Climate
Change on Cereals
in Nigeria


lorliam, Terngu*
C. J. Arene**
and
Noble, J. Nweze***
 

The study estimates climate response functions for some selected cereal crops in Nigeria. It determined current climate change impacts, and evaluate the impacts of future Changes in climate on crop output under different model-based climate scenarios. The output quantities of cereal crops covering a period of 38 years (1973-2011J were regressed on Meteorological data for the corresponding period. Mann Kendall analyses were run to determine trends in the agroclimatological data. Results show significant (P < 0.05) rising trends in mean annual air temperature and precipitation at i he country level.

Climate accounted for about 62.7%, 49.9%, 55.8%, and 54.9% outputs of rice, sorghum, corn, and millets respectively. Temperature and precipitation had positive significant (P < 0.01) impact on outputs of rice, corn, and millets. Only precipitation had a significant (P < 0.01) impact on sorghum. Outputs of cereal crops also increased significantly (P < 0.01) during the period. However, impacts of predicted climate (Precipitation) scenarios from three models (CGM2, HaDCM3, and PCM) for year 2060 showed marked decline in future yields for all the crops. For sustainable cereal production in Nigeria, government, organised private sector, and civil society groups should invest more in proactive climate change adaptation strategies like water harvesting and irrigation infrastructures, and crop varieties with proven ability to do well in water-stressed environments, in order to address the negative impacts of rainfall limitations.

  • * Department of Agribusiness Managemenet, Akperan Orschi College Of Agriculture, P.M.B. 181, Benue State.
    E-mail:terngu_iorliam@yahoo.com

  • **, *** Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

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Determinants of Bargaining Power
of Women within the Household:
An Empirical Study

S. Sundari
 

In this research paper an attempt is made to identify the determinants of the bargaining power of women in household resource sharing. More specifically the paper focuses on the issues of: Is there gender bias in the allocation of households resources? Why there is gender bias in household resource distribution? What factors determine women's share in household resource allocation? The study is based on a sample of 1000 households selected from two districts of Tamil Nadu State-Dindigul and Theni and also from Chennai, Metropolitan city. The major finding of this paper is that there appears to be evidence of pro- male bias in the distribution of household resources. Gender discrimination with regard to food distribution is only marginal. Only in the case of allocation to non-food expenditures there is an unequal treatment of men and women and the gender gap is prominent particularly among the poor, resource constrained male and female headed households. However the degree of gender bias is relatively less among the female headed households. A new trend is emerging with children particularly boys bargaining for a greater share of household resources. Overall the multiple regression result suggests that the age of women, women's contribution to the total household income and social capital are the key factors that determine the women's bargaining power in all type of households and in all regions. The study suggests direct intervention by Government to target women in poverty reduction and employment generation programmes.

  • Professor and Head, Department of Economics, Mother Teresa Women's University, Kodaikanal - 624 101 Tamil Nadu

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An Analysis of Greece's
Balance of Payments
from 2000-2011


Meredith Brooks*
and
Kishore G. Kulkarni
 

The main purpose of this paper is to review the Balance of Payments of Greece through the years 2000-2011. This includes a description and analysis of the Current Account and Capital and Financial Account, including the relevance of running a current account deficit and the role that increased access to capital has had in financing it. We find that Greece has had a chronic current account deficit, and that this deficit has had grave effects on the Greek economy. Furthermore, the increased capital mobility has enabled Greece to finance increasingly larger deficits that were ultimately unsustainable in the face of a global recession.

  • *Graduate student, Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver, 2201, South Gaylord Street, Denver, CO 80209.
  • **Distinguished Professor of Economics and Editor, 1JEB (visit: www.ijb.com), CB 77, pox, 173362, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO 8017-3362.
    E-mail: kulkarnk@mscd.edu

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Economic Reform and Industrial
Productivity: Testing the J-Curve
Hypothesis at State Level

Kirtti Ranjan Paltasingh1
and
R. K. Mishra2  


There has been an intense debate about the trade policy orientation and growth and productivity of manufacturing sector in case performance of Indian manufacturing sector with respect to liberalization policy initiated in 1991. However, recently researchers found the J-curve pattern of industrial productivity growth with respect to reform in case of Indian manufacturing sector as a whole. But in this paper an attempt is made to test that hypothesis at much disaggregate level of three Indian states. The result confirms that in case of little industrially developed states at the time of initiation of reforms like Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, productivity growth behaves in S-curve pattern in the sense that productivity increases in subsequent periods. But in case of Gujarat it is like J-curve pattern in the sense the growth of productivity declines initially then increases in subsequent period. Thus, the study concludes that the impact of liberalization has not been similar on state manufacturing sectors. Some states immediately responded to reform and some with a lag but ultimately liberalization achieved the goal of getting the industrial sector competitive and efficient one.

  • ICSSR Fellow, School of Economics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500 046
    E-mail: kirtti.paltasingh@gmai.com
  • Director and Senior Professor, Institute of Public Enterprise, Osmania University Campus, Hyderabad-500 007 E-mail: ramkumarmishra@gmail.com

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Indian Power Sector:
Emerging Opportunities
and Challenges

Surender Singh Yadav
 

The Indian Power Industry is one of the largest and most important industries as it fulfills the energy requirements of various other industries. It is one of the most critical components of infrastructure that affects economic growth and the well-being of our nation.

Since independence in 1947 Indian Power Sector progress has been rapid. From mere 1713 MW of installed capacity in 1950 the capacity at the end of March 2007 rose to 124569 MW excluding capacity of renewable energy. Total generation in April 2006-March 2007 was 659419 GWh in the utility sector. The per capita consumption of electricity increased from 15 KWh in 1950 to 619 KWh in 2006-07.W It had an installed capacity of 205.34 Gigawatt (GW) as of June 2012, the world's fifth largest. Thermal power plants constitute 65% of the installed capacity, hydroelectric about 22%, nuclear power 3% and 10% rest being a combination of wind, small hydro, biomass, waste-to-electricity. India has the world's 5th largest electricity generation capacity and it is the 4th largest energy consumer accounting for 3.4% of global energy consumption. Due to the fast-paced growth of the Indian economy, the country's energy demand has grown at an average of 3.6% p.a. over the past 30 years.

  • Asst. Professor of Economics, Govt. College Nahar, Distt. Rewari, Haryana.

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Dynamics of Pulses Production and
Incomes against Competing Crops:
A Case from Andhra Pradesh1

G. Gangadhara Rao
 

This study analyzes chickpea and pigeon pea production with the adopted practices of the farmers at village level from two districts. These crops were extensively cultivated during 2006-09. It is found that farmers have higher incomes from the pulses production among the competing crops and the less need of investment compared to incomes and investment of other crops cultivation. Adoption of new technology is well received in study villages. The availability of genuine seed and pesticides has become true disturbing problem for pulses production. In spite of many stipulations, market is the major block for realizing of proper price to the farmer from either village of study districts.

There appears the existence of Oligopoly/Cartel price fixation by the traders and the high-level corruption in regulated markets due to commingling of traders and officials. Still extension services of agricultural department are to tread sufficiently on the fields of pulses cultivation.

  • This paper is based on the Report "Possibilities and Constraints in Increasing Pulses Production in Andhra Pradesh and the Impact of National Food Security Mission on pulses", submitted to the Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.
  • *Director, Agro-Economic Research Centre, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.
    E-mail: ggrao333@gmail.com

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The Impact of Basel III Implementation
on Banking System of India in Global
Financial Crisis Period

Almatov Khurshid Abdurashidovich*
 

The global financial crisis affected major financial centers across the entire world in the period of globalization. The banking sector in the emerging market economies including India faced financial stabilization issues in the absence of well developed banking regulation systems. The new mechanism of robust banking regulation system improve financial system of a country. Basel III Accord for capital adequacy and liquidity requirements provide a sound frame work for addressing increasingly complex risks faced by banks with an objective to foster a secure and reliable banking sector. Basel III norms have been adopted by Indian commercial banks as per Reserve Bank of India guidelines to build up a more transparent and risk free financial base. The present study attempts'to examine the Indian banking system's response to implement Basel HI framework as per Reserve Bank guidelines. An effort has been made to find out whether financial system in India is ready for implementing Basel HI norms. For this purpose, financial system of India has been analyzed in detail. The research has indicated that Indian banking system has taken significant and structural initiatives with regard to implement the Basel III norms in their organizational structure.

  • PhD student at University of World Economy and Diplomacy,
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Republic of Uzbekistan.
    Uzbekistan, Tashkent city, Mirzo Ulugbek region, Mustakillik street, 54- house, postal code: 100077
    E-mail: almatovkhurshid@gmail.com, almatovkh@rambler.ru

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