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Special Centennial Issue

No. 395

April 2019


ISSN 0019-5170



Private Healthcare in Hinrachal Pradesh: A Case Study

Sikander Kumar1
Divya Sarjolta2

Private institutions dominate the field in treating the inpatients, both in the rural and urban areas in India. However, despite the growth of private services, the people of Himachal Pradesh, are generally more likely to visit a government health care facility than a private facility. The study aims to understand the economics of private healthcare sector in the state. From the study of sample hospitals, it was found that the private hospitals were facing deficits or earning very little surplus owing to the fall in the patient load over the years. The hospitals incurred huge coast and a large chunk of the total costs was incurred on the the medical or fee paid commission to specialist/professionals. There was a slight disparity in the prices charged for similar services offered by different private hospitals signifying the non-price competition existing between the stakeholders.

Key Words: Economic Growth, Infrastructure, Causality Cointegration and Vector Error Correction Model

  1. Professor and Vice Chancellor, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla-171005
  2. Research Scholar, Department of Economics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla- 171005

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Masala Bonds: Adding Spice to Indian Bond Market

Sana Moid 1

Bith the financial crisis of 2008, the macroeconomic position vveakened in the urbane economy. However, the promising market economies improved and exploited the opportunity of popularization of local currency bonds. India launched its Masala Bond abroad in 2013 with twin objectives of domestic infrastructure financing along with mitigating currency risk. Inspite of generating tremendous interest among issuers and investors, its market growth and development is still inhibited by factors like lack of liquidity and depth. Issuing Masala Bonds was the first step undertaken by RBI towards the internationalization of Indian currency. The present study aims at assessing the current market state along with comparing its features with similar issued bonds by other emerging economies. The present study concludes by summarizzng the requirements fordeveloping the Masala bond market and its role as a viable option for financing.

Key Words: : Masala Bonds, Financing, Offshore Currency, Currency Risk, Emerging Markets

  1. Amity Business School, Amity University, Lucknow Campus.

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Consumption of Durable goods in India:
A Cross-Section Analysis

Rajnarayan Gupta 1


The present study makes a cross-section analysis of the consumption of durable goods in India. The investigation is made on the basis of NSS (National Sample Survey) data. The report of the 68th round survey of the NSSO (National Sarnple Survey Organization) has been considered for that purpose. The report shows Ihat there is wide diffrrence in the consumption of durable goods among states and between rural and urban sectors. Ellie study tries 10 find out the factors responsible for lhe variation. Alternative regression models have been formulated for thal purpose with MPCEDG (Monthly Per Capita Consumer Expendilure on Durable Goods) and BSDG (Budget Share of Durable Goods) as explained variables. Models have been fitted separately for rural and urban sectors. Empirical findings show that both inter state and inter sector variation in the spending on consumer durables are the result of widespread income inequalities in the country.

Key Words:Consumption, Durable goods, Monthly Per Capita Consumer Expenditure, Budget Share, Income Inequality.

Jel classification: E21, 053

  1. Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Barasat Government College,West Bengal Educational Service, Kolkata- 700124. Email

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Socio-economic Profile of Coconut Farmers in

Pesala Peter1
I. Maruthi2  

The cultivation of coconut crop is gradually increasing in Karnataka state. Through coconut crop large people are getting direct or indirect employment. In India, most of the people treat coconut tree as a "Kalpavruksha " or tree of life. The coconut area about 90 per cent comes from southern states, viz. Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Initially in Karnataka state, few districts cultivated coconut crops, but presently almost all 30 districts arecultivating coconut crop. The study pertains to the Karnataka state. Primary survey is adopted. The sample respondents were selected based on puwsively sampling technique. In the first stage three districts (Tumakuru, Hassan and Chitradurga) were selected where the coconut cultivated more. In each district 80 samples selected. In second stage, in each district two villages were selected. And in final stage, in each village 40 coconut households were selected. The study considered in each district 80 samples representing and the total sample size is 240. The primary study period was from IS t July, 2017 to 3h June, 2018. The field work was completed in the month of July-August, 2018. The objective of the paper is to study the socio-economic profile of coconut farmers ' in selected households.

The findings of the study are: Among the sample villages, OBC are higher in Nambihalli village and among the social groups SCS are very less in cultivation of coconut crop. The average owned land is higher in Chitradurga district and the average owned land is higher in Alur village. The main irrigation source of the farmers were tube well, followed by canal, open well, tanks and others. Half of the farmers land soil quality is good. The agricultural income contributed in significant manner among the activities. The share of agriculture income is higher in Chitradurga district. The highest second income comes from service sector, followed by dairy & animal husbandry, other sources and self business. The institutional average borrowed loan amount is higher in Chitradurga district and Alur village. Very few of the coconut farmers are borrowed money from non institutional sources. To cultivation of coconut crop land played a key role, in addition to that, financial background is required. Due to lack of financial support. SCs were unable to cultivate coconut crop more in selected villages. To inclusive (SCs farmers') growth, Government of Karnataka has to provide some intensive facilities to them. Therefore, social imbalances will reduce in selected villages.

  1. Consultant in ADRT Centre, ISEC, Nagarabhavi, Bengaluru- 560 072, for corresponding, Email:
  2. Professor in ADRTC, ISEC, Nagarabhavi, Bengaluru-560 072.

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Improving the Methodological Framework for the
Development of Ecotourism in the Regions

Hulkar YO. Yokubovna1

Importance Today, the ecological problem is one of the global problems not only in Uzbekistan, but also in the world. Using natural resources of the region to preserve ecology, the development of ecotourism is a good result, and direct environmental protection. Development of ecotourism in the region is important not only for environmental protection, but also for improving the socio-economic situation of the local population. In this article, we have tried to analyze the systematic approach to ecotourism.

Objectives Today, as a result of air pollution, an average of 4.3 million people worldwide die every year (Kuwait, Croatia). Recently the use of chemicals has increased dramatically. Currently, more than 400 million tons of vehicles and food are used on Earth. The use of toxic chemicals in some countries has increased cancer by 20%. An estimated 47,000 people die from chemical poisoning every year. In industrialized countries (China and India), the atmosphere is poisoned and has a major impact on the environment. The above argue that spontaneous areas should be safeguarded.

Methods In the process of studying the problem of ecotourism development in the regions, systematic analysis and regional methods were used.

Results The Pop district of Namangan region has a unique ecosphere. Using the natural potential of the region, it is possible to achieve the economic development of the district in the future. The aforementioned figures and figures state how environmentally friendly zones are so important to human life and how they live and how important it is tomaintain a healthy lifestyle, to adapt to the standards.

Conclusions According to the results of research, strategies for the application of public and private partnership mesenisms have been developed to accelerate the development of ecotourism in the regions. For the development of ecotourism in the region it is necessary to create wide opportunities for the establishment of ecotourism objects, legalization, development of tourism for private entrepreneurs. In future, it will be possible to create socio economic development of the regions, create new jobs, based on the capacities of our regions.

Key Words:Ecotourism, Ecotourism Objects, Pop District, Ecotourism Infrastructure, Likert Scale.

JEL:R11, R12, D01, D84

  1. Independent Researcher of the National University of Uzbekistan, Assistant of the Department of Social Sciences of the Namangan Engineering Construction Institute,Email:

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Factors Affecting the Expenditure on Different Goods
Across Households in Rural and Urban India  

R. Ahalya 1

In this paper, the pattern of conswnption expenditure on various household goods like food, entertainment and medical expenses is analyzed. Further, the various socioeconomic factors affecting the expenditure share of various types of food items in the total expenditure on food are studied. The major factors considered in the paper are household occupational class, total monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) of the household, the household size, average years of education obtained by the household members and the gender of the household head. A left censored Tobit regression is used to look at the impact of these factors on consumption shares of different commodities for rural and urban areas separately. The National Sample Survey 's round of Employment and Unemployment data is utilized for the purpose of the study. The results indicate that households having a better occupational class, higher MPCEand more years of education spend more on commodities and food items that are generally considered as luxury or high value items by the households.

Keywords: consumption, occupation, education, food.

  1. Ph.D. Student, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016. Email:

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Labour Issues and the Impact of Migration on
Kerala Agriculture  

Geetha Lakshmi1

The state of Kerala structurally abundant in labour supply is facing a labour shortage especially in the agricultural sector. A prior reason for this shortage is the national and international migration of labourfrom Kerala. Among the 29 states in India, Kerala has the largest number of international labour migration. In addition 10 Ihat Kerala 's labour force migrates from the rural areas to other major urban towns and cities. Hence, being a labour intensive industry agriculture faces serious labour shortage in its different activities. Even after mechanization, labour problem persist in this sector. Mechanization resulted in a reduced requirement of labour in agriculture. However, there still exist a shortage in agricultural labour. Based on the circumstances prevailing in Kerala, an attempt is made throughthis paper to throw some light on the labour issues and also to analyze the impact of migration of labour force on Kerala's agriculture sector with special reference to paddy cultivation. In Kerala two major regions are famous for paddy cultivation are in Alappuzha and Palakkad districts. The present study, which is both historical and empirical in nature, is restricted to Kuttanad region in Alappuzha district, conducted using both primary and secondary data.

Key words:Agricultural Development, Paddy Cultivation, Migration, Scarcity.

  1. Research Scholar, S. B. College, Changanacherry, M.G., University, Kerala, India. Email:

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Profit Efficiency of Bambara Nut Farmers in
Benue State, Nigeria

Biam, C.K.1

lordekighir, A.A.2

This study was designed to measure the level of profit efficiency and its determinants for bambara nut farmers in Benue State, Nigeria, using a stochastic frontier profit function. Primary data were collected from 168 farmers, sampled through multi-stage stratified and purposive sampling techniques, using structured questionnaire. The estimated farm level profit efficiency ranged froml.OO to 4.50 with a mean profit efficiency of 1.86. This means that on the average, bambara nut farmers in Benue State, spent about 86 percent above the minimum cost of producing a unit of their output. Analysis of influence of the farmers socio-economic characteristics on profit efficiency in bambara nut production showed that farmers access to formal credit (2.65) and family size (3.12) positively and significantly influenced their profit efficiency at 1% (PO.OI) level. The study therefore, recommends, among others, that bambara nut farmers in Benue State should be encouraged to acquire more formal credit and increase their family size as these factors highly influenced their profit efficiency.

Keywords: Stochastic frontier profit function, profit efficiency, bambara nut, Benue State, Nigeria.

  1. Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

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How is SHG-BLP Program Influencing Risk-Return and
Risk Absorption Capacities of its Beneficiary

Deepankar Roy1  

Anirudha More2  

Samar K. Datta3  

The objective of this paper is to determine whether micro-credit intervention increases the income risk perception of people and to what extent; and how these people plan to cope with income risk and how they do actually cope with the same.

Primary data for this paper comes from a multi-stage stratified random sample of 126 SHG households being promoted by 7 carefully selected banks (2 public, 2 private, 1 RRB and 2 DCCBs) across six different states, which represent North, South, East, West and North-East parts of the country. A multinomial logit model is applied to bring out the drivers of change behind choice of options to hedge income risks in advance (i.e. ex ante) and in practice (i.e., ex post). Another multinomial logit model is used to explain choice of options by households to meet contingent needs to the tune ofRs. 5000, 10000, 20000 in a week's time.

SHG-interventionhas limited capacity' to augment member income though it may expose households to greater albeit moderate income risk, given the fact that concerted efforts to expand petty business of SHG households in newly developing markers often invite more risks. It is an important finding that while as much as 16% of families intend to use Traditional wisdom to cope with risk, only 21% are able to do so in practice, thus forcing as much as 48% of them to rely on use of borrowings and accumulated assets to overcome crisis.

While the existing literature has certainly dug out the main sources of income risks in SHG households, besides pointing out the major strategies used by these households to cope with such risks, it has hardly made a rigorous econometric analysis of coping strategies, besides hardly making a distinction between ex ante and ex post facto strategies. The present paper, using multinomial logit model, makes considerable progress in unearthing factors which influence choice of coping strategies of one or the other type to tackle sudden income shortfalls.

Keywords: SHG-BLP,microfinance, income risk, micro-credit.

  1. Assistant Professor, National Institute of Bank Management, MBM Post Office, Kondhwe Khurd, Pune-411048, India. Email:,
  2. Ph.D. Scholar at Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune, India. Email:
  3. Retired Professor. Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India.

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Restructuring Education System in India:
The Need of the Era  

Indu padhyay 1

Varsha Yadav 2

This paper is an 10 study Ille position of education in Indian economy. It needs no enphasis that in a globalised world the factor Inarkel are interlinked therefore lhere is a need to develop skill amongst the people to cope up with the needs of the market. The quality of education depends upon the quality of pnmary, secondary and higher education. Since, India is facing the problem of unemployment because of Dial adjustment between the demand (of skills) and supply of labour. Therefore, the paper aims at studying the problems of education system in India and suggest measures to solve them. The paper is divided into three sections, first one deals with the introduction and second part examines the position and problems of primary, secondary & higher education in India, third section focuses on the analysis, conclusions and recommendations to sort out the problem.

  1. Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Vasant Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Kamaccha, Varanasi.
  2. Junior Assistant, Vasant Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Kamachha, Varanasi. 1 Eleventh Five year plan, Planning Commission, Government of India, 2007-12

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