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Special Centennial Issue

No. 404

July 2021

Vol. CII

ISSN: 0019-5170


Theories and Perspectives of Street Vending- A Comparative Study of Markets in Delhi

B. Srinivasu1
Manvi Aggarwal2

Street vending is an important part of informal economy and people usually consider it as an option of last resort. The present paper makes an attempt to identify various reasons that why people choose street vending and thus categorises them under various perspectives as proposed in the literature. The paper proposes an addition to the existing perspectives by examining the results of the primary survey conducted in the markets of Delhi. The paper also examines the demographic profile of 200 street vendors sampled from the markets of Teliwara and Connaught Place. The results suggests that street vending is now a rational choice and decision made by people who are working as microentrepreneurs in urban areas.

Keywords: Street Vendors, Informal Sector, Informal Economy, Informal Labour.

  1. Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi - 110025. E-mail:
  2. Research Scholar, Department of Economics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi- 110025. E-mail:

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An Empirical Study on Present Status of The Primary Schools in Ambedkar Nagar District: With Special Reference to “Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya Abhiyan”

Mulayam Singh Yadav1
Anjali Singh2

Since Vedic periods Indian culture has persuaded cleanliness as an attribute of human. The ancient education system, also laid emphasis to purity of mind, body and soul to achieve the steadfast personality and salvation. The disciples were taught to remain clean before every ritual. Clean environment was said to be the important aspect of human body, soul, mind, intellect and entire life.

‘Clean India Campaign’ is a tribute to Mahatma Gandhi’ vision and it was proposed by Prime Minister Modi. Mahatma Gandhi encouraged his followers to live a clean and hygienic life. Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya Abhiyan is an initiative of central government to spread awareness about Swachh Bharat Campaign in and by the primary schools. To analyse the present status of the said campaign in the primary schools of Ambedkar Nagar District is the primitive objective. In this pandemic time the importance of cleanliness has reapproved the need of clean water and sanitation, to study the COVID appropriate behaviour in the study area is another objective.

  1. Research Scholar, Department of Economics, Dr. Shakuntala Misra National Rehabilitation University Lucknow.
  2. Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Dr. Shakuntala Misra National Rehabilitation University, Lucknow.

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Motivational Aspect of Migration Among Brick Kiln Laborers: A Study of Kushiabill, Dimapur Nagaland

Nijan Chandra Pegu1
Anuradha Singha2

Migration is an observable fact occurring all over the world and it is considered as the third component of population change- ‘mortality, and ‘fertility’ being the first two. Migration being a response of human organism to economic, social, political change in society, poses number of challenges as well as opportunities to the area concerned. But, if the process continued after certain extent, it became a nuisance and act as an obstacle in the prosperity of the region by posing numerous socio-economic difficulties. In some part of the country especially in the Northeastern part of India Migration became a matter of great concern. Northeastern region being comparatively less developed with low employment scope and entrepreneurial spirit, people are accustomed to migrate to the nearby areas of some industrial set up. The brick kilns are the most common small industrial set up in some part of the region which is basically run by the migrants. Studies revealed that the negative impact of migration falls both in the place of origin as well as place of migration. It leads to division of families, loss of young , able and energetic human resources leading to unbalanced population structure with higher death rate in the place of origin. On the other hand, various socio economic problems related to language, racial/ethnic tensions, new low quality settlements, health problems, overall environmental degradation etc arises. Moreover, original residents lost their job to incoming workers since with limited skill and education in general, migrants are agreed to work at lower wage rate. Nagaland is one such state of the northeastern region of India which has faced host of problems due to migration process over the years. In Nagaland, especially in the place like Dimapur, this phenomenon of movement of people has contributed largely to the rapid growth of the state population leaving both the migrants and the residents of the area in a very unwanted and malicious situation. Different types of people from different background, tribes and religion migrate and assemble for their survival. But recently, it is experiencing new dimensions with numerous problems and challenges. Hence, in the present context it became very important to make some policy changes in order to check such movement of people which affect both the areas of origin as well as new area of destination. The present study deals with the kusiabill area of Dimapur where there is a large concentration of brick kilns and remarkable increase in migrants are seen in the area who is mainly working in the brick kilns. The study attempts to find out the factors responsible for their migration to clarify if the employment opportunity is the main factors of such migration or does the push factors of the place of origin also boost up the migration to such areas of industrial set up.

Keywords : Migration, Brick kilns, pull and push factors, factor analysis.
  1. Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, B.Borooah College, Guwahati. Email:
  2. Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, B. Borooah College, Guwahati. Email: /

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Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: A Selective Review and Agenda for Future Research

Krishnagi Pandey1
Prakash Singh2
Firoz Husain3

Corporate governance practices by firm is increasingly becoming a critical element of firm’s performance and an area of great concern to all stakeholders, particularly market regulators and shareholders. While numerous studies have clearly evidenced that sound corporate governance practices is an important tool for reducing agency costs and an effective board, higher proportion of independent directors, a vigilant audit committee etc. are very significant variables and they have a positive impact on firm’s market performance; there are differences in the patterns observed, depending on the host country of the firm, stage of development of the economy (developing vs developed), size of the firm, ownership etc. The current work attempts to conduct a meta-analysis of all relevant research issues around corporate governance. Researchers have developed various indices to measure Corporate Governance by using proxies like Board size, number of independent directors, attendance record of board members etc. Extant studies have proved that corporate governance practices are more developed and associated with developed economic markets as compared to developing economies. Similarly, studies have evidenced that Corporate Governance systems and architectures are more observed in large firms whereas it is poor in small firms. Also, we highlight research work which clearly prove that Corporate Governance is better in professionally managed companies as compared to family own businesses. Finally, we list evidence to support that better corporate governance practices definitely lead to better image of the firm among the shareholders in the markets leading to better valuation. The current work also highlights uniqueness of corporate governance in Banking sector.

Keywords : Corporate Governance, Agency Theory, Agency cost, Board of Directors, Developed and Developing economies, Firm size, ownership, Firm Performance, Auditor Quality, Banks.

  1. Research Scholar, Integrated University, Lucknow. E-Mail:
  2. Professor, IIM, Lucknow.
  3. Assistant Professor, Integrated University, Lucknow.

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Child Labour in Tobacco: Household Survey in Murshidabad District of West Bengal

Sudip Chakraborty1

The present study looks in to pervasiveness and the reasons for persistence of child labour in home-based tobaccoprocessing units in Murshidabad district in West Bengal. Child labour of any form is unacceptable. Pervasive poverty and low skill transfer across generations have been found to be connected with persistence of home-based tobacco work of children in Murshidabad district of West Bengal. For girls, this skill transfer paves the way for their marriages and for boys the same is for contributing to their family income. Families trapped in low skill transfer and poverty nexus should be lifted out of the vicious circle. Skill development in horticulture, fruit processing and revival of handicrafts hold the key to economic transformation. Child labour in Beedi making can be eliminated through universal and attractive schooling for children. VEC, labour inspector and Panchayat should work together. A mix of compulsion and persuasion should underlie the public action.

Keywords- Child justice, hazardous work, informalization, Feminization, Skill Transfer.

  1. Associate Professor in Economics, Ananda Chandra College (North Bengal University), P.O. & Dist. Jalpaiguri, West Bengal- 735101. E-mail:

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Effectiveness of Advertising Media and Demographic Factors: An Empirical Study of Jammu and Kashmir Tourists

Shipra Misra 1
Kakali Majumdar 2

Effectiveness of advertisements is an important area of study for any destination. Advertisement helps the tourists to gain learning about the place. Jammu and Kashmir (J &K), is predominantly based on the tourism. In the present study, various advertising media and their effectiveness are studied in respect of demographic factors for the tourists visiting J &K. Three broad advertising media namely Broadcasting, Print media and modern ICT are constructed for the present study. Age, income, employment and education, these four demographic factors are considered for the effectiveness analysis. Primary data of 310 tourists has been collected through well-structured questionnaire. Factor Analysis and Multiple Regressions are used for data analysis. It is observed that income and age are the most prominent demographic factors that influence the effectiveness of different advertising media for J & K tourists. Except income, none of demographic variations is influencing the effectiveness of the Modern ICT advertisement for J & K tourist. The study is useful for destination marketers to develop micromarketing strategies for enhancing effectiveness of advertising in whole tourism sector in general and J & K tourism in particular.

Keywords: Tourism, Advertisement, Effectiveness, Media, Demographic factor.

JEL Classification: L83, M37, Z32

  1. PhD Student, School of Business, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Kakryal, Katra, Jammu, India, Pin-182320
  2. Associate professor, School of Economics, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Kakryal, Katra, Jammu, India, Pin-182320.

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Measuring TFPG and its Components Using Frontier Approaches: A Study of 4-Digit Manufacturing Industries of Metal Products and Machinery Equipments in India

Prasanta Kumar Roy1
Purnendu Sekhar Das2
Sebak Kumar Jana3
Devkumar Nayek4

The study estimates TFPG and its components of the 4-digit manufacturing industries of metal products and machinery equipments in India during 1998-99 to 2017-18 and during its two sub-periods-pre-economic crisis period (1998-99 to 2007-08) and post-economic crisis period (2008-09 to 2017-18) using frontier approaches, i.e., Data Envelop Analysis (DEA) and Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA). The components of TFPG are technological progress (TP), technical efficiency change (TEC) and economic scale change (SC). Our study shows over this twenty-year period (1998-99 to 2017-18), TFPG of most of the 4-digit manufacturing industries of metal products and machinery equipments in India declined during the period of posteconomic crisis (2008-09 to 2017-18) as per SFA measure and the decline in TFPG of them is due to the decline in TP of the same during this period; while as per DEA measure TFPG of most of those industries have increased and the increase in TFPG of them is mainly responsible for the increase in TEC and SC of the same during that period.

Keywords: 4-Digit Manufacturing Industries, Metal Products and Machinery Equipments, Data Envelop Analysis, Stochastic Frontier Approach, Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technological Progress, Technical Efficiency Change, Economic Scale Change.

JEL CODES:: C23, D24, L6, O47

  1. Associate Professor, Dept. of Economics, Midnapore College (Autonomous), Midnapore, Dist. Paschim Medinipur (W.B.), India, Pin: 721101, Email:
  2. ** Professor (Retd.), Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT, Kharagpur, Dist. Paschim Medinipur (W.B.), India, Email:
  3. Professor, Department of Economics with Rural Development, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, Dist. Paschim Medinipur (W.B.), India Email:
  4. Guest Teacher, Dept. of Economics, Midnapore College (Autonomous), Midnapore, Dist. Paschim Medinipur (W.B.), India, Pin: 721101, Email:

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Agrarian Crisis in India and its Determinants: A Diagnostic Perspective

Vikram Chadha1
Sandeep Kaur2

Agriculture continues to remain a preponderant sector of the Indian economy. In spite of its dwindling contribution to GDP overtime, it is still a large employer of labour force. Although in the contemporary phase, Indian agriculture is mined in deep crisis mainly manifesting in plunging productivities, rising cost of cultivation, inequalities and nose diving incomes, and of late, due to exploitation at the hands of MNCs supplying inputs, yet since time immemorial agriculture in India has been afflicted with different shades of crises, either due to high land revenue and Zamindari system during the colonial period, or adverse climate conditions. But the end result has been abysmal distress for the farmer cultivators. Agrarian crisis is a complex syndrome. Multiple factors have precipitated into a crisis situation in agricultural sector with very diabolic consequences. The present paper therefore attempts to, first quantify the extent of agrarian crisis in India by constructing a composite index of agrarian crisis and then to analyse its determinants and contributing factors over the study period with the help of Multiple Regression Analysis. The major findings are that the agrarian distress has deepened over time and the main contributors are low share of public investment in agricultural sector and slowly rising Minimum Support Prices (MSPs).

  1. Prof. (Retd.) Punjab School of Economics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (PUNJAB).Email:
  2. Assistant Professor, Lyallpur Khalsa College, Jalandhar (PUNJAB). Email:

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An Analysis of Fiscal Policy Stimulus and the Response of Public Debt Under Covid 19: An Indian Perspective

Samir Ul Hassan1
Biswambhar Mishra2
Tosib Alam3
Monika Sinha Rymbai4

This study examined the effect of India’s public debt on public spending from 1985-to 2018. ARDL Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag models were used to test the effect of the various public debt instruments on public spending in India. The cointegration test found the existence of a long-run relationship among the investigated variables. The study found that the increase in public spending, in response to Covid-19, and the fall in tax revenue and economic activity, will make the public debt ratio jump substantially. The shortrun result shows that public debt has an insignificant effect on public spending in India, especially for health and infrastructure. The debt servicing and the adjustment policies required to address the debt burden have also worsened investment in such areas as social welfare in the area of education, health, and communication. In the near-term, additional fiscal action should be deployed as needed to support the poor and the vulnerable. This should be accompanied by a credible medium-term fiscal consolidation plan that can reinforce market confidence and structural reforms that boost India's growth potential. The effects of Covid-19 on health, education, poverty, and nutrition render progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals even more urgent. Macroeconomic and financial stability are important necessary conditions for sustainable development.

Keywords: Fiscal policy; Public debt; debt GDP ratio; pandemic.

  1. Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Central University of Kashmir.
  2. Professor, Department of Economics, North Eastern Hill University Shillong.
  3. Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Central University of Kashmir.
  4. Research Scholar and MLR Fellow, North Eastern Hill University Shillong.

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Social Sector Expenditure and Human Development Index: An Empirical Analysis of Indian States

Sanjeev Kumar and Urvashi Sirohi*

India underperforms, in comparison to several other developing countries, in terms of its socio-economic outcomes. On the other hand, social sector expenditure is considered to be instrumental in achieving higher levels of social sector expenditure. This kind of spending is not only believed to be growth enhancing but also provides a cushion from shocks of various nature to the vulnerable section. The available literature does not have a consensus on the impact of social sector spending on the social outcomes. This paper is an attempt in this direction to assess the impact of social expenditure on the levels of human development index for 30 states of India between the time period 2000-01 to the year 2019-20. The empirical analysis finds a high degree of variation in the social sector spending across states. Along with that, the fixed effect panel data regression reveals that social sector spending has a positive significant impact on the human development index (HDI) for the states. The study suggests that social sector spending could be one of the possible channels to enhance the levels of living standard in the states.

Keywords: Human Development Index, Social Sector Expenditure, Physical Infrastructure.

JEL Classification: E62, E63, H5

* Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow (UP)- 226007, INDIA
   Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow (UP)- 226007, INDIA.    E-mail:

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