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No. 368

July 2012


ISSN 0019-5170


Bank Margins and Financial Market Access
in, Botswana and South Africa

Sylvanus Ikhide


Olalekan Yinusa

Most existing studies on access to finance in Southern Africa tend to focus on access to transactions and deposit facilities in formal financial institutions especially commercial banks. Such efforts have result-in considerable policy advocacy to increase access. The point of departure in this article, is that, given the role commercial bank credit for economic growth and poverty reduction, access to loans in the formal banking sector should be a major focus of policy. Less than 20% of people in this region have access to banking sector loans because of the high cost of financial intermediation. This article uses data from 8 commercial banks from Botswana and South Africa to investigate the impact of bank specific, industry specific and' macroeconomic factors in determining the cost of financial intermediation. Our results shows that industry specific and macroeconomic variables rather than balance sheet factors account for wide bank spreads and hence the high cost of financial intermediation in South Africa while balance sheet factors take the primordial place in Botswana. We then recommended that policy should be directed towards endorsing market development efforts by banks and state factors as a way of reducing the cost of intermediation and enhancing access.

1. Department of Economics, University of Fort Hare, South Africa.
2. Department of Economics, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana.

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Correlates Land Value Determinants
in Metropolitan Chennai

A. Abdulraheem

This paper examined the relationship that exists between various land value determinants in metropolitan Chennai. Using factor analysis and principal component techniques, it showed that a high level of co-variation existed between factors of land value such as accessibility, rent, transport improvement, quality of neighbourhood, infrastructural facilities and government regulations. The need for land use planners to consider these land value determinants in putting land into optimum use were highlighted.

1. Assistant Professor and Research Supervisor, Dept of Economics,
    The New College (Autonomous),Chennai-14 .

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National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS)
in India: An Assessment

Kufdip S. Chhikara


Anand S. Kodan


The study points out that low coverage, low operational performance, low participation of volunteer farmers, low awareness of farmers, low access of farmers to institutional credit, continuously banks failure in achieving the target of priority sector in common and agriculture credit in particular, shrinking of banking facilitates in rural areas, re-emergence of unauthorized source of credit in rural areas, low education of farmers, no cooperation of bankers towards farmers, problems of design and implementation of the NAIS, problems of obtaining accurate & timely price data from local markets, the model of measurement of agriculture loss by natural hazards is not to all farmers are the common weakness of the National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS). The agriculture sector of India—the main employment provider and the back bone of the Indian economy, is affected most by recurring natural hazards due to climate changes, requires the most care and protection against all sort of uncertainties, hence, NAIS can prone itself as the best protector (Ram Baan) in this context.

1.Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, M. D. University, Rohtak.
2. Research Scholar, Department of Commerce, M. D. University, Rohtak.

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Relationship between Fiscal Balance and Balance
in the Current Account in
Singapore: An Econometric Analysis

Chandan Kumar Mukhopadhyay , Debabrata Mitra


Kanchan Datta

There has been a plethora of studies concerning the relationship between fiscal balance and trade balance. The over all findings can be classified under two broad hypotheses. One is known as twin balance hypothesis which implies there does exist a relationship between BD and CAD and BD Granger Causes to CAD. On the other hand, there is alternative hypothesis that is known as Ricardian Equivalence Theorem which negates any such relation. This study involves IFS data, where the real BD and CAD data series are used and they are used in terms of percentage of GDP. This study is based on a battery of tests like, ADF, PP unit root test, followed by the estimation of cointegration. Vector ECM VAR and Granger Causality.This study supports the Ricardian Equivalence Hypothesis in the economy of Singapore over the period of the study.

1. Professor, Department of Economics, University of North Bengal.
2. Head, Department of MBA & Reader in Commerce, University of North Bengal.
3. Reader in Economics, University of North Bengal.

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Eurozone's Structural Problem-the Case of Spain


Anshu Chawla


The crisis in Europe is still far from resolved. There is no certainty regarding the timeline when Eurozone would revert back to its pre-crisis growth trajectory, if at all it does. Spain's story lays bare the fact that the Eurozone's problems run far deeper than the issue of excessive borrowing by ill-disciplined governments. The aim of this paper is to review the factors which characterize the internal imbalances in Spain and its implications regarding the management of an important macroeconomic identity. To this end, the paper briefly discusses the Spain's eligibility to be a part of the European currency union in the first place on the basis of the optimum currency area (OCA) theory. It then discusses the determinants of internal imbalance and the subsequent economic dilemmas that Spain is facing. Finally some significant lessons are drawn from Spain's experience.

1. Consultant, Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, India

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Is Micro Health Insurance Really Effective?
A Study Analyzing the Impact of Micro Health
Insurance Schemes In India


Nasiha Munib


Introduction: India is one of the dynamic and emerging economies in the world today yet we have a large population of poor people. The health sector presents a grim situation. Combined spending by governments, multilateral aid agencies, international organizations, NGOs, and the private sector makes up less than one third of the total amount spent on healthcare in India. A major share (80%) of this amount is born by the private household sector as out of pocket spending. Studies indicate that out of pocket expenses for health care are a contributory factor for indebtedness and impoverishment As high as 40% of the hospitalized cases in India either borrow money or sell assets to meet hospitalization costs. At the same time there are wide differences in so far as the access to affordable health care is concerned. Millions in India have simply stopped seeking medical aid for their ailments as they simply cannot afford it

It is important to realize that social protection of the poor is increasingly been viewed as an important way to achieve higher economic growth. There is no denying the fact that the provision of basic social services, building institutions for social security and extending access to decent and affordable health care is essential to fight poverty. Moreover, for making any meaningful and lasting impact on the lives of the poor there is a need to protect them from the risks of illness,death,loss of assets etc.


1.Centre for Management Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025

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Human Development and Poverty in India


Mahendra Pratap Singh


Devashisli Haldar


Human development index (HDI) is extensively used to measure the standard of living of a country. India made a study progress in the HDI value. This study was undertaken to assess the trends in (HDI), Human Poverty Index (HPI) and incidence of poverty among Indian states, die socio-economic, health, and diet and nutritional indicators which determine the HDI, changes in protein and calorie adequacy status of rural population, and also trends in malnutrition among children in India. While India's HDI value has improved over a time; our rank did not improve much compared to other developing countries. The Under nutrition among pre-school children is still a major public health problem in India. The incidence of poverty at different levels of calorie requirement has not reduced in both rural and urban areas.

1. Prof. Department of Economics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005
2. Research Scholar, Department of Economics, FSS, Banaras Hindu University,

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